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Cytochrome P-450 CYP19 -- See Aromatase


An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
  1
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6.   2
 

Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenase -- See Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System


A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
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Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme -- See Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System


A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
  1
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System.   8
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System -- analysis.   1996 1
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System -- chemistry.   2005 1
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System -- chemistry -- Congresses.   c1995 1
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System -- Congresses.   1975 1
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System -- physiology.   2
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System -- physiology -- Congresses.   c1995 1
Cytochromes.   3
Cytochromes c.   3
Cytochromes c' -- chemistry.   1991 1
Cytochromes -- Congresses.   1968 1
Cytodiagnosis.   20
Cytodiagnosis -- Atlases.   2
Cytodiagnosis -- Laboratory Manuals.   2
Cytodiagnosis -- methods.   18
Cytodiagnosis -- methods -- Atlases.   2013 1
Cytodiagnosis -- Periodicals.   3
Cytodiagnosis -- veterinary.   2
Cytodiagnosis -- veterinary -- Case Reports.   2010 1
 

Cytofluorometry, Flow -- See Flow Cytometry


Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
  1
 

Cytogenetic Aberrations -- See Chromosome Aberrations


Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
  1
  Cytogenetic Analysis -- 5 Related Mesh   5
Cytogenetic Analysis.   6
Cytogenetic Analysis -- Collected Works.   c2003 1
Cytogenetic Analysis -- methods.   8
Cytogenetic Analysis -- standards.   2016 1
 

Cytogenetic Techniques -- See Cytogenetic Analysis


Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
  1
  Cytogenetics -- 5 Related Mesh   5
Cytogenetics.   25
Cytogenetics -- Congresses.   2
Cytogenetics -- methods.   8
Cytogenetics -- Periodicals.   7
Cytogenetics -- yearbooks.   1974 1
 

Cytohistological Preparation Techniques -- See Histocytological Preparation Techniques


Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.
  1
 

Cytokeratin -- See Keratins


A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
  1
 

Cytokine -- See Cytokines


Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
  1
 

Cytokine Receptors -- See Receptors, Cytokine


Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
  1
Cytokines.   23
Cytokines -- antagonists & inhibitors.   3
 

Cytokines, Chemotactic -- See Chemokines


Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
  1
Cytokines -- diagnostic use.   c1993 1
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