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E-BOOK
Title Introduction to petroleum biotechnology / James G. Speight, Nour Shafik El-Gendy.
Imprint Cambridge, MA : Gulf Professional Publishing, [2018]
©2018

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 Internet  Electronic Book    AVAILABLE
Description 1 online resource
Bibliog. Includes bibliographical references and index.
Note Available only to authorized UTEP users.
Online resource; title from PDF title page (EBSCO, viewed December, 11, 2017).
Subject Petroleum -- Microbiology.
Minerals -- Biotechnology.
Contents Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Petroleum Composition and Properties -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Crude Oil -- 2.1. Crude Oil From Tight Formations -- 2.2. Opportunity Crudes -- 2.3. High Acid Crudes -- 2.4. Foamy Oil -- 3.0. Heavy Oil and Extra Heavy Oil -- 3.1. Heavy Oil -- 3.2. Extra Heavy Oil -- 4.0. Tar Sand Bitumen -- 5.0. Composition -- 5.1. Elemental Composition -- 5.2. Chemical Composition -- 5.3. Composition by Volatility -- 5.4. Composition by Fractionation -- 5.5. Composition by Spectroscopy -- 5.6. Composition by Chromatography -- 6.0. Properties -- 6.1. Acid Number -- 6.2. Density and Specific Gravity -- 6.3. Surface and Interfacial Tension -- 6.4. Viscosity -- 6.5. Volatility -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 2 Refinery Products and By-Products -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Gaseous Products -- 2.1. Liquefied Petroleum Gas -- 2.2. Natural Gas -- 2.3. Shale Gas -- 2.4. Refinery Gas -- 3.0. Liquid Products -- 3.1. Naphtha -- 3.2. Gasoline -- 3.3. Solvents -- 3.4. Kerosene and Diesel Fuel -- 3.5. Fuel Oil -- 3.6. Lubricating Oil -- 3.7. White Oil, Insulating Oil, Insecticides -- 4.0. Semi-Solid and Solid Products -- 4.1. Grease -- 4.2. Wax -- 4.3. Asphalt -- 4.4. Coke -- 5.0. Process Wastes -- 5.1. Gases and Lower Boiling Constituents -- 5.2. Higher Boiling Constituents -- 5.3. Wastewater -- 5.4. Spent Caustic -- 5.5. Solid Waste -- References -- ch. 3 Introduction to Petroleum Biotechnology -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Principles of Biotechnology -- 2.1. History -- 2.2. Industrial Biotechnology -- 2.3. Applications in the Petroleum Industry -- 3.0. Biotransformation of Petroleum Constituents -- 3.1. Alkane Derivatives -- 3.2. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives -- 3.3. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives -- 3.4. Heterocyclic Derivatives -- 4.0. Factors Affecting Biotransformation -- 4.1. Conditions for Biotransformation -- 4.2. Effects of Biotransformation -- 4.3. Effect of Nutrients -- 4.4. Effect of Temperature -- 4.5. Rates of Biotransformation -- 5.0. Biotransformation of Crude Oil in the Reservoir -- 5.1. Reservoir Character -- 5.2. Temperature Effects -- 5.3. Pressure Effects -- 6.0. Challenges and Opportunities -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 4 Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Oil Recovery -- 2.1. Primary Processes -- 2.2. Secondary Processes -- 2.3. Tertiary Processes -- 3.0. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery -- 3.1. Approaches -- 3.2. Mechanisms and Effects -- 3.3. Changes in Reservoir Rock Permeability -- 3.4. Changes in Reservoir Rock Wettability -- 3.5. Biological Demulsification of Crude Oil -- 4.0. Upgrading During Recovery -- 5.0. Challenges and Opportunities -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 5 Bio-upgrading Heavy Crude Oil -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Biodesulfurization -- 3.0. Biodenitrogenation -- 4.0. Biodemetallization -- 5.0. Biotransformation of Heavy Crude Oil -- 5.1. Biodearomatization -- 5.2. Biotransformation of Asphaltene Constituents -- 6.0. Challenges and Opportunities -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 6 Biocatalytic Desulfurization -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Desulfurization -- 2.1. Hydrodesulfurization -- 2.2. Adsorptive Desulfurization -- 2.3. Oxidative Desulfurization -- 3.0. Biocatalytic Desulfurization -- 4.0. Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil and its Fractions -- 4.1. Enzymatic Oxidation of Organosulfur Compounds -- 4.2. Long-Term Repeated Specific Biodesulfurization by Immobilization -- 4.3. Nanobiocatalytic Desulfurization -- 5.0. Biodesulfurization Reactors -- 6.0. Case Studies -- 7.0. Challenges and the Future Perspectives -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 7 Biocatalytic Denitrogenation -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Nitrogen in Crude Oil -- 3.0. Denitrogenation -- 3.1. Hydrodenitrogenation -- 3.2. Thermal Denitrogenation -- 4.0. Biocatalytic Denitrogenation -- 5.0. Challenges and Opportunities -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 8 Biotransformation in the Environment -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Biotransformation -- 2.1. Method Parameters -- 2.2. Monitored Natural Attenuation -- 2.3. Use of Biosurfactants -- 2.4. Bioengineering in Biotransformation -- 3.0. Environmental Biotransformation -- 3.1. Natural Biotransformation -- 3.2. Methods of Biotransformation -- 3.3. Enhanced Biotransformation -- 3.4. Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation -- 3.5. In Situ and Ex Situ Biotransformation -- 4.0. Principles of Environmental Biotransformation -- 4.1. Factors Affecting the Rate of Bioremediation -- 4.2. Temperature -- 4.3. Acidity-Alkalinity -- 4.4. Effect of Salt -- 4.5. Bioavailability of the Contaminant -- 4.6. Contaminant Composition -- 5.0. Mechanism of Biotransformation -- 5.1. Chemical Reactions -- 5.2. Kinetic Aspects -- 6.0. Test Methods for Biotransformation -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 9 Chemistry of Biotransformation -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Biodegrading Microorganisms -- 3.0. Anaerobic Biotransformation -- 4.0. Aerobic Biotransformation -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 10 Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Kinetics of Petroleum Biotransformation in Soil -- 3.0. Aspects for the Success of Biotransformation -- 3.1. Indigenous and Augmented Microbial Population -- 3.2. Pollutant Type and Concentration -- 3.3. Degree of Weathering -- 3.4. Nutrient Concentration -- 3.5. Effect of Temperature -- 3.6. Moisture Content -- 3.7. Soil Type -- 3.8. Soil Interaction With Macroorganisms -- 3.9. Aeration -- 3.10. Soil Acidity-Alkalinity -- 3.11. Heavy Metals -- 3.12. Surfactants -- 4.0. Challenges and Opportunities -- 4.1. Conventional Biotransformation -- 4.2. Enhanced Biotransformation -- 4.3. Biotransformation in Extreme Environments -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 11 Bioremediation of Marine Oil Spills -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Fate of Aquatic Oil Spills -- 2.1. Spreading and Advection -- 2.2. Evaporation -- 2.3. Dissolution -- 2.4. Photo-Oxidation -- 2.5. Emulsification -- 2.6. Natural Dispersion -- 2.7. Sedimentation and Sinking -- 2.8. Degradation -- 3.0. Oil Spill Remediation Methods -- 3.1. Booming Floating Oil -- 3.2. Skimmers -- 3.3. Pumps or Vacuums -- 3.4. In Situ Burning -- 3.5. Dispersants -- 3.6. Adsorbents -- 3.7. Bioremediation -- 4.0. Factors Influencing Rates of Oil Spill Bioremediation -- 4.1. Nutrients -- 4.2. Oil Concentration -- 4.3. Bioavailability of Contaminant -- 4.4. Temperature -- 4.5. Oxygen Availability -- 4.6. Pressure -- 4.7. Acidity-Alkalinity -- 4.8. Salinity -- 5.0. Bioremediation Technology for a Marine Oil -- 6.0. Prevention and Response -- References -- Further Reading -- ch. 12 Future of Petroleum Biotechnology -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. Status -- 2.1. Biorefining -- 2.2. Biodesulfurization, Biodenitrogenation, and Biodemetallization -- 3.0. Technology Potential -- 4.0. Biorefinery -- 5.0. Future Trends -- References.
Summary Introduction to Petroleum Biotechnology introduces the petroleum engineer to biotechnology, bringing together the various biotechnology methods that are applied to recovery, refining and remediation in the uses of petroleum and petroleum products. A significant amount of petroleum is undiscoverable in reservoirs today using conventional and secondary methods. This reference explains how microbial enhanced oil recovery is aiding to produce more economical and environmentally-friendly metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. Meanwhile, in the downstream side of the industry, petroleum refining operators are facing the highest levels of environmental regulations while struggling to process more of the heavier crude oils since conventional physical and chemical refining techniques may not be applicable to heavier crudes. This reference proposes to the engineer and refining manager the concepts of bio-refining applications to not only render heavier crudes as lighter crudes through microbial degradation, but also through biodenitrogenation, biodemetallization and biodesulfurization, making more petroleum derivatives purified and upgraded without the release of more pollutants. Equipped for both upstream and downstream to learn the basics, this book is a necessary primer for today's petroleum engineer.
Other Author El-Gendy, Nour Shafĭk, author.
Other Title Print version: Speight, James G. Introduction to petroleum biotechnology. Cambridge, MA : Gulf Professional Publishing, [2018]